A Community Needs Index was developed to identify areas experiencing these second set of challenges by combining a series of indicators, conceptualised under three domains:
- Social Infrastructure: Measures of the presence of key community, civic, educational and cultural assets in and in close proximity to the area.
- Connectedness: Measures of connectivity to key services, digital infrastructure, isolation and strength of the local jobs market.
- Active and engaged community: Measures concerning the levels of third sector civic and community activity and barriers to participation and engagement.
‘Left-behind’ areas are conceptualised as areas with:
- high levels of need, multiple deprivation and socio-economic challenges; and
- poor community and civic infrastructure, relative isolation and low levels of participation.